Guardians of the Stars
The most classic non-lethal weapon is the Taser electroshock weapon which uses electrical current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles causing “neuromuscular incapacitation”. Someone struck by a Taser experiences stimulation of his or her sensory nerves and motor nerves, resulting in strong involuntary muscle contractions.
Newer non-lethal weapons are often electrolasers, a type of electroshock weapon which is also a directed-energy weapon. It uses lasers to form an electrically conductive laser-induced plasma channel (LIPC). A fraction of a second later, a powerful electric current is sent down this plasma channel and delivered to the target, thus functioning overall as a large-scale, high energy, long-distance version of the Taser electroshock gun. Alternating current is sent through a series of step-up transformers, increasing the voltage and decreasing the current. This current is fed into the plasma channel created by the laser beam.
Another popular system is the dazzler, which is a directed-energy weapon intended to temporarily blind or disorient its target with intense directed radiation. Targets can include sensors or human vision. Dazzlers emit infrared or invisible light against various electronic sensors, and visible light against humans, when they are intended to cause no long-term damage to eyes. The emitters are usually lasers, making what is termed a laser dazzler. Most of the contemporary systems are man-portable, and operate in either the red (a laser diode) or green (a diode-pumped solid-state laser, DPSS) areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are often small enough to be used as under-barrel accessories.